The Ganjam area of Odisha, as well as neighbouring states like Andhra Pradesh, is home to a large population of the Indian goat breed known as the Ganjam goat. Some regions of Madhya Pradesh and Kerala also have populations of these goats. Meat is the primary reason for raising these goats. There is a black or brown variety of this breed. There are additional creatures that are white, brown, or spotted. Horns that are both curved and twisted.
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Typically up to 50 cm in length, they stand perpendicular to one another and point backward and upward. This breed is distinguished by its beardless males, rounded skulls, long, drooping ears, and wattles on both sexes. This breed has an average body weight of 35.5 and produces 65 kg of milk per lactation. Commercial goat farming was particularly successful due to the high demand for goat meat throughout all of India’s states. To maximise earnings in a short amount of time, it is crucial to choose healthy Ganjam goat breeds.
Characteristics of Ganjam Goats
The Ganjam district of Odisha is where you can get authentic Ganjam goats. The area between 19 degrees 10 minutes north and 20 degrees 28 minutes north and 84 degrees 16 minutes east and 85 degrees 18 minutes east covers 9,230 square kilometres and has an elevation range of 0 to 466 metres. The Ganjam breed is raised for both its meat and its milk. Ghee derived from the milk of the Ganjam goat is particularly expensive since it is used to treat asthma.
The ganja goat is a sturdy, medium-sized animal with a broad chest, long legs, a strong neck and shoulders, and thick hair on its thighs and back. Males are more powerful than females and have longer horns. The body and head are around the same size. Both male and female goats may have a beard and wattles. Goats of the Ganjam subspecies may have any number of different coat colours, including black, brown, blackish brown, brownish-black, and even white spots. Greyish black may be seen on the hooves, snout, eyelids, and horns. Medium-sized, droopy ears.
The size of its horns is what sets this breed apart. The horns of males are thicker, more twisted, and curled, while those of females are straight and relatively slender. Males’ horns have been measured at up to 53 centimetres in length. The size of a flock ranges from a few animals to many hundreds. It is not uncommon for a flock of up to 2,000 animals to be the result of the merging of 4-5 separate flocks from various farms.
Adults and children have different nutritional needs. Hay, grass fodder, tree fodder, concentrate, legumes, etc. all fall within the category of feeds.
Proper and extensive housing is crucial. The farmer will have more success in the long run if he takes care of his family’s needs while building their home.
Basic requirements of housing
The shed, milking barn, storage, feeding trough, floor, doors, fences, ventilation, and good drainage all have ideal locations.
The suggested amount of floor space inside a goat shed for a single adult goat is 1–1.5 square metres. Space requirements for nursing females and mature males, respectively, are 1.5–2.0 and 2.0 m2.
Their opinion is that wooden floors are ideal for their home. A dry, pest- and predator-free environment is ideal for raising Ganjam goats. To keep the goat shed clean, the floor should be mopped every day. Maintaining enough ventilation and airflow is essential for illness prevention. The health of your Ganjam goats depends on a steady supply of clean water.
Mutton is the major reason why Ganjam sheep are kept. Traders pay $13–15 for male lambs aged 5–6 months and $20–30 for male lambs aged 7–10 months. The price for an older ewe ranges from $15 to $20 USD. Rams are sold for slaughter at a price of US $38–50. Butchers or middlemen assign an artificial “body score” to each animal based on its size, weight, and other physical characteristics to determine its selling price.
Some sheep ranchers claimed to have eaten sheep that had already died, despite the fact that this practice is illegal. Farmers either profit from the sale of sheep manure or utilise it on their own land. Some farmers trade it in for hay or animal feed. Sheep may earn between US $0.006 and US $0.008 per day from their droppings. Lactation lasts about 4 months, during which time the animal produces 100–250 ml of milk each day. Almost seldom is the milk consumed by humans since it is reserved for the lamb.
Profitability in goat farming may be ensured with a well-thought-out business strategy.
Commercial Ganjam goat breeders need a strategy for selling their goats in large numbers.
Meat store operators may get in touch with local goat farmers to ensure a steady supply of Ganjam goats, depending on the animals’ age and weight.
- Consuming weeds aids farmers in their efforts to eradicate them.
- Goats’ milk has a longer shelf life than other milk.
- We can get what we need from fiber or skin.
- Manure may be made from dung and garbage.
- The market is really hungry for meat.
- Goat farmers need to hire caretakers.
- The protein and vitamins B12, zinc, and potassium included in goat meat make it a healthy option.
One must have a solid foundation of information before venturing into goat farming.
The optimum breeding performance should be prioritised when buying a goat.
Goats should be vaccinated frequently as per the season to avoid any breakout of any form of illness on the goat farm.
Proper upkeep of the dwelling is required to ensure it can withstand any and all weather variations. It’s important to monitor the goat constantly for any signs of illness or unusual behaviour. Never put off hoof trimming since it might cost you dearly. It’s recommended to do this once every few weeks.